HOROLOGICAL AND RELATED HISTORICAL DATES
 
1215
The Magna Carta is signed by John.  
c 1270   The invention of the crown wheel and verge escapement, by an unknown person or persons, possibly in Italy. 
 
1272
Accession of Edward I. 
 
1306
Rebellion of Robert the Bruce
 
1307
Death of Edward I, accession of Edward II.
 
1327
Death of Edward II, accession of Edward III.
   1327-36    Richard of Wallingford builds his clock at St Albans Abbey.
c 1335    The use of the count wheel for equal hours striking in Italy.
   1344    Walter the Orgoner fits a Dyal to the clock in Old St Pauls Cathedral in London. 
   1348-64    Planetarium clock built by Giovanni De'Dondi.
   1368   Three Dutch clocksmakers, John Uneman, William Uneman and John Lietuyt given the protection of Edward III. 
 
1377
Death of Edward III, accession of Richard II. 
    1386   Salisbury Cathedral clock built. 
    1392   Wells Cathedral clock built.
 
1399
Accession of Henry IV.
c 1400    The development of domestic clocks, including the Gothic clock.
 
1413
Death of Henry IV, accession of Henry V. 
 
1422
Death of Henry V, accession of Henry VI.
 
1461
Accession of Edward IV. 
 
1471
Death of Henry VI. 
 
1477
William Caxton prints first book in England. 
 
1483
Death of Edward IV, accession and death of Edward V, accession of Richard III. 
 
1485
Death of Richard III, accession of Henry VII. 
 
1509
Accession of Henry VIII. 
    1533   Henry VIII believed to have presented a small clock in silver to Anne Boleyn on the occasion of their wedding. 
 
1536
Dissolution of the monasteries. 
 
1547
Succession of Edward VI. 
 
1553
Accession of Mary. 
 
1558
Accession of Elizabeth I.
    1588   Chamber clock by Francis Nowe, made in London.  Robert Harvey, lantern clockmaker becomes free in Oxford.
    1598   Carillon Chamber clock by Nicholas Vallin, made in London, now in the British Museum. 
 c 1600   Galileo Galilei discovers the isochronism of the pendulum. 
 c 1600   The appearance of the English lantern clock, the precursor of the thirty-hour clock. 
  1603 Death of Elizabeth I, accession of Jame I.
  1605  Gunpowder plot. 
    1620    The earliest surviving dated lantern clock made in London by Henry Stevens. 
    1621   Dated lantern clock by William Bowyer.
    1621   Dated lantern clock by William Selwood.
1625  Death of James I, accession of Charles I. 
    1625   A clock, perhaps a lantern clock, recorded in the inventory of Richard Newton of Seend, blacksmith, on his death. 
    1629   John and Nicholas Snow working in Salisbury.  Earliest dated provincial Lantern clocks are two by John Snow, inscribed 1630. 
    1631   The formation of the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers.
 
1642
Start of the Civil War. 
 
1649
The execution of Charles I and estabishment of a republic. 
 
1653
Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector. 
    1657   The Coster/Fromanteel Contract.
    1658   Christiaan Huygens publishes HOROLOGIUM in which he relates that in 1656 he devised a way to use of swinging pendulum to control a clock. 
 
1658
Cromwell dies. 
    1658   Ahasuerus Fromanteel introduces the pendulum clock to England.
 
1660
The Restoration of the Monarchy, Charles II returns to England. 
    1660   The beginning of the golden age of English clockmaking. 
 c 1660   The first use of the longcase. 
    1662   The formation of the Royal Society.
 
1665
The great plague. 
 
1666
The fire of London.
 c 1670   The invention of the anchor escapement, possibly of Robert Hooke. 
    1671   Thomas Tompion arrives in London. 
    1672   Invention of the wheel cutting engine attributed to Hooke. 
    1673   Christiaan Huygens publishes HOROLOGIUM OSCILLATORIUM. 
    1674   Spiral spring first used in watches to give the balance wheel a natural period, attributed to Huygens.
    1675   John Smith publishes his 'Horological Dialogues'.  Founding of the Royal Observatory. 
 c 1676 Rack striking/repeating invented by Edward Barlow.
 
1685
Death of Charles II, succession to the throne of his brother James II, rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth fails, the battle of Sedgmoor. 
 
1688
Accession of William and Mary.
    1696   Rev William Dereham publishes 'The Artificial Clockmaker'. 
 
1703
Death of William III, accession of Anne. 
    1713   Death of Thomas Tompion. 
 
1714
Death of Anne, accession of George I. 
    1715   George Graham invents deadbeat escapement. 
 
1727
Death of George I, accession of George II. 
 
1745
Bonnie Prince Charles leads the Jacobite rebellion. 
    1752   Adoption of the Gregorian Calendar. 
    1754   Thomas Mudge invents lever escapement. 
 
1760
Death of George II, accession of George III. 
 
1769
James Watt patents his steam engine. 
    1772   The first white dials for clocks. 
    1773   John Harrison wins Board of Longitude prize. 
 
1776
Declaration of American Independence.
 
1792
Coal gas used for lighting.
 
1805
The battle of Trafalgar.
 
1815
The battle of Waterloo. 
 
1820
Death of George III, accession of George IV.
 
 1825
Stockton to Darlington railway opens. 
 
c 1827
Invention of Tarmacadam.
 
 1830
Death of George IV, accession of William IV. 
 
1837
Death of William IV, accession of Victoria.
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